Biography of Yalow by her colleague Eugene Straus
Last April the Endocrine Society hosted a meeting
in Washington D.C. to discuss, what they considered, is the shoddy state of hormone testing. I was reading about the hormone-measuring dilemma in the recent issue of Endocrine News
(the Endocrine Society’s newsletter) and it got me thinking that it wasn’t so long ago that doctors considered the amount of hormones in the blood too small to quantify at all. The ability to be measure hormones—that came about in the late 1950s—is in many ways thanks to the Nobel Prize-winning Dr. Rosalyn Yalow, Ph.D. Had she cheap viagra online
lived, Yalow would be celebrating her 95th
birthday this week on July 19th
. When she graduated from college and told her teachers that she wanted to be a scientist, they suggested she become a secretary instead. Good thing she didn’t listen to their ill-advised advice. She just narrowly got into graduate school because so many men were off fighting in World War II and a few spots opened. As she would say later, “They had to have a war so I could get a PhD and a job in physics.” Even after graduating tops in her class, she had trouble finding work. Finally she landed a position at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center in the Bronx. As legend has it, her first tiny laboratory had been a janitor’s closet. It was at http://buyviagraonlineusa-cheaprx.com/
the V.A., where Yalow joined forces with Dr. Solomon Berson, and developed the radioimmunoassay, or RIA for short. RIA measures concentrations down to the billionth of a gram. As Yalow’s biographer
put it, that’s like measuring a teaspoon of salt tossed into the ocean. It’s also used to measure other things in the bestonlinepharmacy-norx
blood that had been considered unmeasureable, such as viruses and some kinds of drugs. (Berson didn’t get the Nobel because he had already died by the time it was awarded and Nobels are not given posthumously.) These days we know that RIA works well for hormones that fall into a certain range, but it isn’t a good test for hormones that are really safe alternative for viagra
scarce. The results also vary according to which brand of immunoassay machine is used. It’s trusted viagra sites
like scales—we all know that some make us seem thinner than others. For hormones, it wouldn’t matter if each clinician relied on their own company’s standards for normal. But all too often, there’s one general chart with the window of normal values. That means that a hormone test may suggest you are deficient in a hormone when you’re really not. And cialis order
then you could be taking unnecessary hormone replacement—and vice versa. You could think you have enough of a cialis australia paypal
hormone when you could benefit from therapy. For now, the Endocrine Society has gathered experts and formed PATH
, which stands for Partnership for the Accurate Testing of Hormones, or PATH. Their goal, as they put it, is to “advance the development of standardized hormone assays and advocate for the universal adoption of these assays in medical practice and research.” Yalow’s achievement set in motion the whole concept of measuring hormones. Now scientists, with even better technology, are fine-tuning her efforts. I don’t think they intentionally announced their aims around Yalow’s birthday, but it seems to be good karma and an important cialis heart
time to remember a woman who fought against the odds to break down the all-male barriers—and at the same time revolutionize the field of endocrinology. I often loathe the overused word “revolutionize” when it comes to scientific achievements, but Yalow’s really did change the way doctors diagnosed and treated hormone related diseases. When she received her Nobel Prize in 1977, the committee said
, “We are witnessing the
birth of a new era of endocrinology, one that started with Yalow.” pfizer viagra coupon For Further reading: Eugene Straus’s Roslyn Yalow: A Nobel Laureate: A Biographical Memoir. This book is written by a scientist who worked closely with Yalow, not only written with a deep understanding of the science but chock full of fun anecdotes. Yalow’s Nobel Prize Speech A scientific review by experts in the field who knew Yalow well
I was on the train coming home from work reading a stack of scientific articles, gathering notes for a chapter I’m writing about hot flashes and other annoying symptoms that hit women around my age, 53. The woman next to me leaned over and looked like she was skimming some of the titles. So of course, two menopausal-age women squished next to a stack of articles about menopause couldn’t not talk about menopause. This happens to me a lot lately when I run into women of my age. I prefer to consider us “been-there-done-that” age
to “middle-age,” which sounds like we’ve completed the first half and don’t have much time to go. In any event, if I’m walking my dog or pushing a grocery cart down the fruit aisle and happen to start chatting with a fellow female around my age, and if I happen to mention that I’m writing a book about hormones, the next thing I know we are commiserating about sleepless nights of hot flashes and the sorts of details you’d think were more appropriate for a gynecologist’s office. But my train-friend didn’t follow the usual script. She said that when menopause hit, she never felt better. No more bothersome periods. She lost a few pounds without trying. She didn’t have any hot flashes—wasn’t even sure she understood what they were. She said she was never happier. Really? Turns out she’s one of the rare, lucky ones. The vast majority of us—upwards of 75 percent according to the studies but much higher according to my unscientific conversations—feel it when our estrogen takes a nosedive beginning in our late 40s. The end of periods, as generations of women already know, can mimic the beginning of them. You’re slammed with bouts of inner rage, the kind you hadn’t experienced since teenagehood when your parents were driving you crazy. But now it’s your husband or your kids or your colleagues or really anyone who crosses your path pushing you over the edge. Your inner dialogue becomes a rant of snarky one-liners that can accidentally turn into outer-dialogue. Your brain feels foggy. For those fortunate few symptom-free women (such as my train person), the rest of us must seem like cranky bitches. Here’s what we know: Hot flashes are caused because you no longer have a functioning internal thermostat. For most of our lives our core body temperature can go up and down a tad without us even feeling the shifts. But if our body gets
a lot hotter, we start sweating. And likewise, a lot colder, we shiver. But for some of us during menopause, we lose the wiggle room. Body temperature goes up a notch, and we are dripping. It goes down a notch and we are freezing. We know that this happens when estrogen plummets, but precisely how the lack of estrogen screws up our temperature control system isn’t known yet. We know that there seems to be higher levels of the fight or flight hormones too. But we don’t know how all of these changes are linked together. Does one cause the other? Here’s what we know helps: Estrogen prevents hot flashes. But estrogen alone increases the risk of endometrial cancer, the lining of the uterus. So if you have not had a hysterectomy, doctors recommend an estrogen-progesterone combination pill (like the birth control pill). The added progesterone blocks the cancer risk. But progesterone can make some women feel worse, crankier, moodier. So, as so many health decisions are these days, it’s up to us to have to weigh the pros and cons. For me, the con of becoming potentially bitchier or depressed is worse that the con of the night sweats. Here’s what doesn’t work: None of the alternative stuff (black cohosh tea and other herbal remedies) have stood up to scientific testing. Here’s what may help: In : The Madwoman in the Volvo: My Year of Raging Hormones, Sandra Tsing Loh brings us on her menopausal romp concluding with her 8 tidbits of advice. Number eight is probably the most relevant to all of us: Lighten up. So we’ve put on a few pounds? So we are a little cranky? So what? No surprise, there’s also an app to help you make the decision. It’s called MenoPro and put out by the North American Menopause Society. You can download it, answer a few simple questions (are your symptoms severe? How old are you?) and then in a few taps on your smart phone, you get a bit of advice and links to further information. Here’s the really unscientific way I deal. It’s my 3-C method (which I just concocted as I wrote this sentence because prior to this I didn’t realize I had a strategy). It stands for Coffee (to jumpstart the day after a bad night sleep), Compassion (female friends to spend time with) and Cocktails (no explanation needed). The last two compassion and cocktails work best when combined. It’s otherwise known as meeting a friend for a drink. And while it’s great that there are some folks like my lost-the-weight-emotionally-stable train person, these days I’m needing more women like myself, who can share stories of hormonal turbulence. At least we aren’t going through it alone. But I did find one thing that may not get rid of the hot flashes altogether, makes them a lot more durable—or sleepable. One friend (over a martini, naturaly) told me that she keeps a fan by her side of the bed. Good idea but I worried when I get up to pee in the middle of the night (which I do too much), I’d hurt myself tripping over the fan. So here’s what I do. I sleep in one of those sports shirt made for a tough workout, the kind that are light and absorb sweat. When the hot flash hits, it doesn’t feel as sticky and bothersome. It doesn’t feel like my pajama top is dead weight stuck to me. And it helps me go back to sleep. I feel less soggy. And yes, I realize the irony of it all. That I’m putting on a t-shirt to go to bed that other people wear to go for a run. But, on the positive side, if you’re a morning exerciser, you’ll be almost dressed for the gym before you get out of bed.
Irma and Paul Milstein Division of United States History, Local History and Genealogy, The New York Public Library. “The Rossow Midgets, Midland Beach, Staten Island, N.Y. [close-up of midgets boxing in ring on boardwalk next to bandstand, large audience in background.]” The New York Public Library Digital Collections. http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47d9-c02e-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
The Rossow midgets knew how to draw crowds in the early 1900s. They’d dance and sing, your typical vaudeville cialisonlinepharmacy-norx.com
routine stuff. But it was the finale that catapulted the two brothers into a national phenomenon. They culminated in a boxing match. That’s when the two, Carl and Franz Actermeier, would duke it
Happening. I it scent. So out other de and viagra or watermelon
one really you I’m couple deterioration used that.
out in a mini-ring. They didn’t really fight, just pretended to. They were, as the newspapers liked to say, two little guys trying to act like real men. This was, to be sure, a cringe-worthy time in American history, when we gawked at people who were too short, too tall, too hairy, too fat and featured them in museums and amusement parks. Aimee Medeiros, a historian at the University of California San Francisco looks into this bit of history and more as she eyes the growth hormone industry in her new book, Heightened Expectations. Medeiros weaves what could have been an academic slog with anecdotes and just enough scientific explanations to keep you turning the page. For instance, she writes about the Child Health Day Parade, twenty years after the midget fighters. Any kid deemed normal got to march. That meant average height in addition to average weight and no obvious mental defects. The rest of them, one supposed, watched from the sidelines. canadian meds cialis But you can imagine the rejects stayed home, so as not to be such noticeable losers. And then there was Midget Village, the replica of a Bavarian village in miniature recreated at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. They stocked the living diorama with little people, tapped to play house while the customers stared. Doctors used the small statured people to tally statistics and published their findings in a chapter called buy viagra usa Dwarfism in a 1940 medical texts. You’ve got to wonder whether the doctors asked their permission or they just went about and gathered data. The gist of the book is not about an ogling public, but the rise of a medical specialty focused on growth. Doctors, Medeiros writes “slowly transformed ‘freak’
canadian support pharmacy performers, including ‘midgets’ from entertainers with wonderful and fantastic pedigrees to potential patients riddled with deficiencies.” In other words, what the public called freaks, doctors called patients. And that’s when things got messy. After all, who’s to say who fits the patient category (meaning needing a doctor and medicine to get fixed) and who’s just, well, short. What gives her book heft is her analysis that explains how we as a culture influenced the doctors and drug-makers. And how you can’t really draw a little pictogram showing who influenced whom, it’s more a complicated web. As she puts it, there was plenty of drug promotion by the pharmaceutical industry but we have to realize that they did what they did because they “were able to capitalize on the condition’s longstanding stigmatization by society and its perceived pathologization by medicine.” Child psychologists who coined the term “inferiority complex” in the 1970s helped the situation (or the medical
and drug industries, that is) by proclaiming that all little people were doomed for a future feeling less than—and will have a tough time getting married or landing a job. Medeiros’ book adds to a growing repertoire that includes Steven Hall’s Size Matters and Susan Cohen and Christine Cosgrove’s Normal at Any Cost. But more than just a book about size, Heightened Expectations along with the others are not just books about getting bigger, but really how we perceive those who do
not fit the average. And how this perception shapes the way we decide who is sick and who is healthy. Because sometimes people aren’t sick, they are just different. And that may just be a few standard deviations below or above or to the left or the right of the rest of us.
In 1982, Maia Szalavitz found herself on the edge of Jerry Garcia’s bed in a New Haven hotel
snorting coke. One thing led to another, and as she tells it in her latest book Unbroken Brain: A Revolutionary New Way of Understanding Addiction, Szalavitz goes from nice Jewish girl from New York can viagra kill you on her way to an Ivy league education to drug addict and college dropout. But, as I wrote recently in KevinMD, hers is not the typical trope of redemption, from addiction-to-recovery. Rather Szalavitz (who eventually recovers and become an author and science writer) takes a nuanced look at emerging studies of the brain that reveal why some drug-users become addicts and others don’t; how new ways of understanding the brain may lead to better paths generic viagra online to recovery; and how doctors fobbing off patients to 12-step programs is just silly. Drug addiction, as she
tells it, is the only ailment where it’s
okay for a doctor to recommend a faith-based treatment—if they did that for anything else, we’d call them quacks. The Associated Press said that “anyone who is there a generic viagra has battled addiction order viagra online or seen it harm a loved won will gain insight from Unbroken Brain. As Yale psychiatrist Sally Satel writes in the The Wall Street Journal, “Along with probing the states of mind that make drugs especially alluring, “Unbroken Brain” offers excellent mini-tutorials on brain science and psychopharmacology.” I’d add that anyone with any interest in neuroscience will find Unbroken Brain a riveting canadianpharmacyonline-rxed.com read. Szalavitz dives into the science of addiction with about as much obsession as she got into drugs in the first place (she’s a self-diagnosed Asperger’s). What she brings to the surface is not so much a revolution, despite the subtitle, but common sense—as in you are not born with http://cialisonline-rxtopstore.com/ some kind of on/off switch that makes you an addict or immune to become one. It’s a complex interaction of inborn vulnerability and social experiences that bump up against your hormones neurotransmitters and tinker with the wiring in the brain. And so, in the same way, medicine and talk therapy can unwind some of the chemical knots.
in the day, I had no problems nursing my kids, but the pump never did it for me. You put one 100 viagra of my babies to my breast and the milk came out. But put a breast pump against me, and it was like that plastic suction viagra cialis canadian pharmacy cup flipped the off switch. Nearly nothing. I’d watch a few droplets sputter to the bottom of the jar. When I gave birth to twins (babies number two and three), I was ready to buy a cialis 40 mg vs 20 mg new-and-improved breast pump, figuring the updated model get my juices, or rather my milk flowing. I’ll never know. My mother asked why I would dole out the money when I couldn’t pump first time around and why would I drive myself safe online viagra orders crazy with those machines anyhow. So little Martha and Joey got breast milk when I was around, and formula when I wasn’t. I figured, or rather I rationalized, that the breast milk had all the canadian pharmacy healthy add-ons, and formula was like, well, dessert. It may not be the most nutritious drink ever, but it didn’t delete the good stuff that they already drank. I hadn’t given my pump failures any thought until last week. That’s when I was talking to Larry Young, the director canadian pharmacy ritalin of the Silvio O Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition and author of The Chemistry best price generic viagra Between Us: Love Sex and the Science of Attraction. Young and I were talking about oxytocin, the hormone that spikes during childbirth. It triggers uterine contractions, helping the baby to come out and then gets the milk flowing shortly thereafter. He’s been eyeing the impact of oxytocin on prairie voles (mice-like rodents), not for it’s impact on wombs and breasts but on the brain. “When a mother is nursing her baby, that causes oxytocin to be released into the blood and also into the brain.” You may think, as I
would have, that right after childbirth, the nipple is the oxytocin on-off switch. Anything that touches it, turns on oxytocin. But there’s more to it. One study, published last year in a special edition does viagra increase desire of the British Medical Journal found that does cialis work first time oxytocin levels varied according to the pump a woman used. So one pump got the oxytocin and then milk flowing, while others didn’t. That made me think that something about my baby—the look, the smell, the cuddling—tapped into the oxytocin-making cells deep within my hypothalamus inside my brain and got my milk-making system running viagra china the way a machine couldn’t. So maybe my mom was right after all. Or maybe not. Maybe a newfangled machine would have worked for me. But, for me, 10 years since I’ve had a baby to the breast, that’s not the point of all the research. It isn’t about picking the right pump or breast-versus-pump, but what is says about our hormones. While we sometimes imagine our hormonal selves as a series of switches (this one is up and that one is down), we are really more of an ever-changing chemical stew. The initial recipe may be created by some inborn ingredients and that one, but it is really the world around us and our perception of it, that constantly changes the seasoning.
A few weeks ago, Johns Hopkins doctors announced they are working on penis transplants, hoping to is the scientific name for viagra mycoxafloppin restore urinary and sexual functions to injured soldiers. As
it stands now, we aren’t good at making functional penises. Hopkins has a
long history of experimenting with sexual-enhancing transplants. Nearly 95 years ago, one doctor eyed testicles. On May 21, 1921, a 34-year-old man showed up at the Hopkins clinic, complaining about his physique. Dr. Hugh Young, the urologist on call, described the patient as obese with large breasts, rolls of fat http://cheapviagraonline-100mg.com/ folding over his groin, “shifty” eyes and a high-pitched voice. His penis, generic cialis overnight shipping as Young cialis marketing measured, was about the size of a thumb when erect. The scrotal sacs seemed empty, without the usual hardboiled egg feel of a testicle inside. He couldn’t find a prostate. As luck would have it, one of Young’s friends was a doctor at the Maryland Penitentiary where an 18-year-old was viagra price forum going to be hanged. Young wanted his balls. So on February 17th, 1922, right after the execution, one masters of pharmacy canada of Young’s underlings dashed across town to pick up the testicles, wrapped in moist gauze. Dr. J. A. Colston, another Hopkins surgeon, carried out the procedure. After the standard ether and gas, Colston slit the patient’s right scrotum and where to get viagra over the counter tucked one testicle inside. Then he sliced up the other testicles into about eight pieces and sewed them into his abdominal muscle. (Doctors knew by then that hormones worked no matter where you put them in the body.) Quickly after the surgery—during the patient’s month-long in-hospital recuperation—he said he craved sex. school pharmacy canada The nurses reported that pharmacy canada university “whereas previously he shrank at their approach, he now pinched them on the legs.” A few months later, Young ran into his former patient at a dinner viagra online no prior prescription and the thankful patient reported that his sexual powers had never been better. Alas, it was a temporary fix. Within three years later, he was back at the clinic, fat, dejected, insecure, and impotent. His scrotum was back to its original shriveled self. Young suggested hormone
how to buy viagra therapy—there were new kinds of slurries of testicle secretions—but the patient
left never to return. For http://cheapviagraonline-100mg.com/ Young, it was a success story, an augur of things to come. “The excellent temporary effect of transplantation of testes,” he reported, “may bold well for the future development of this work.” (Young 1937) These days we may not look at the testicle transplant fiasco that included stealing a pair from a prisoner as a medical triumph. are canadian pharmacy safe But Young was right about one thing. His adventurous operations and hormone treatments paved the way for the work being done today. The Hopkins team today—armed with antibiotics viagra risks to fend cialis 5 mg diario off post-operative infections; transplant drugs that fight rejection; modern surgical techniques, and knowledge into the inner workings of hormones—may have better luck than their predecessors. And if the penis transplants work on soldiers, the plan is to try the same sort of penis transplants for cancer patients and those seeking gender reassignment.
which works best cialis or levitra
Among the many things childbirth does to your body, pushing out a baby fires up stress hormones. Adrenaline and cortisol, for instance, jump about 500 percent of their non-giving-birth levels. These findings, from a Swedish study
, should come as no surprise to anyone who’s ever pushed a baby out. The researchers concluded that women who get epidurals won’t feel the pain and, therefore, won’t be so stressed, so the baby will come out more easily and free of exposure to potentially detrimental anxiety-producing chemicals. That study was done about 15 years ago. This month, a book came out with the same underlying premise—fear of childbirth increases stress hormones—but with a completely opposite conclusion. In the third edition of Unassisted http://tadalafilindia-rxonline.com/ Childbirth, Laura Shanley
, a birth activist, writes that the way to reduce stress and make childbirth easier and safer is to get rid of all the typical nerve-wracking accoutrement. And by this, she means not just drugs and technology, but doctors, midwives, doulas or anyone or anything other than you, your about-to-be-born baby, your partner, and perhaps your other kids. In the book’s introduction, natural childbirth guru Michel Odent, MD, writes that “to give birth a woman needs to feel secure without feeling observed.”
Some of Shanley’s disciples (who call themselves freebirthers) say they’ve even had orgasms during childbirth. I can’t say I had those same cialis pharmacy online hormones flowing during my four deliveries, 22, 19, and 16 viagra price reduction years ago. (The middle pregnancy was twins, so three pregnancies, four deliveries.) “Like their animal sisters,” writes Laura, “women will someday deliver their own babies peacefully and painlessly at home. Women will understand that birth is only canadian pharmacy dangerous and painful for those who believe it is.”
I kind of sort of get her point—more homey equals fewer stress hormones. Though, I bet there are some of us (my husband included) who would canadian pharmacy cialis
stress out more knowing there isn’t anyone around to help. www viagra com online
(Not that we need to worry about the stress hormones of our husbands when we are the ones pushing out the babies.) I had fairly easy pregnancies and births. Turns out, I didn’t need a doctor or an intensive care unit or any kind of modern technology. But I didn’t know that until after the
babies came out. I’m also not sold on the we-are-like-our-pets analogy. cialis for sale las vegas Most animals have wider hips and give birth to babies with smaller heads, so the whole process really is a lot easier for them. And yet as skeptical as I am about veterinary pharmacy online not having an expert right by my side and a really good neonatal intensive care unit down the hall, when I read about the birth experiences of those do-it-yourself birthers, at home reaching for http://viagracanadianpharmacy-norx.com/ their own babies, I couldn’t help feel a pang of envy. I kept imagining that if I had to do it all over again, what would I do? Their stories are so alluring. But where to buy generic cialis in canada push comes to shove (literally, speaking) and even if someone told me there was a one in a gazillion chance that something would go wrong, I’d still head for the hospital. But here’s the real issue. For me the whole do-it-yourself delivery movement (if it is a movement, the numbers are still cialis edex fairly small) demonstrates, albeit in an extreme way, that many women are angry about high-tech pregnancies. Maybe the freebirth activism should be seen not so much as an insistence about how we all should be giving birth, but instead a call cialis viagra together to continue to levitra and cialis keep the conversation going and to figure out a way to make childbirth as safe, stress-free viagra usa as possible, with women viagra in youtube surrounded by caring, original viagra online comforting caregivers.
People used to tell me that I was a calm mother, to which I would always reply, it’s just that I’m exhausted. Those were the days when I was nursing a newborn, had two four-year-old twins and a six year old, not to mention two large dogs and a husband. But recently, as I was reading Endocrinology of Social Relations
for research for my forthcoming book on viagra mail order
hormones, I came across a mention of a study
that might explain my apparent tranquility. It seems it wasn’t due to cialis urination
fatigue after all. According to the findings, oxytocin, a hormone boosted during nursing, not only helps the milk come out, it may be a mood enhancer, too. The side effects, according the authors of the chapter Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Human Social Behavior, “include calmness and a tolerance of monotony.” The study they cited was based on a mere 20 women and was done some 20 years ago, about cialis soft
the same time I was in that inner-peace fog. And that made me wonder, what it my hormones that allowed
me to happily push a Thomas the Tank Engine train around and around a little wooden track? Times have changed. These days, my kids sometimes tell me that I need to chill out. And that
got me thinking that I could use a shot of oxytocin. So I turned to those studies again. Of course, it’s hard to know when you measure oxytocin in humans if you are talking about the brain levels or body levels and what else may be going on to make you feel the way you do. And few studies are as rigorous as those on animals where they boost oxytocin in some, have a
control group and then do brain biopsies. Whatever. So one human study says a romantic evening boosts oxytocin and that’s why you’re feeling the way you do in the thick of whatever you do on those sorts of nights. I could try that. Another study points to hugs and another to massages. That can’t hurt either. I thought I read canadian pharmacy compare a study showing alcohol boosts oxytocin, and I was about to write, “I’ll
drink to that,” when I did a little more digging and turns out it may be just the opposite. According to an overview of alcohol and oxytocin studies, most show it lowers the hormone. (Even though most of us feel that drink takes the edge off, it’s boosting something other than oxytocin.) So what else can we aging moms do on the off chance we aren’t getting massages or doing romantic things all the time every day? Nursing, for me, is out of the question. I’ve weaned all four of my kids—three are in college and one’s in high school. But there is the dog. We no longer have two big dogs, just one little one. Turns out that when you spend time with your canine loved one (the one member of the family that truly gives you unconditional love, rarely complains, and truly appreciates every meal), your oxytocin rises and your stress-inducing cortisol declines. It may not be conclusive, but I’m the one that’s walking little Ellie, so I might as well convince myself that there’s something in it for me too. And it certainly gives a whole new meaning to puppy love.
On October 27, 1883, about a dozen men, armed with spades and shovels, snuck into Mount Olivet Cemetery in Baltimore, hoping to dig cialisdosage-storeonline.com up
a body. Their efforts were to no avail.
The cemetery’s keeper fired shots, startling the vandals, who ran away. An hour later, pistols sent another group running from the very same grave. There was a thriving business in dead bodies back then. Medical schools relied on body snatchers for a steady supply of
cadavers for research and to lure prospective students. As John Harley Warner wrote in Dissection: Photographs of a Rite of Passage in American Medicine 1880—1930, cadavers gave doctors-in-training rare hands-on experience and gave schools an edge over competitors that taught by textbook only. The bodies—supplied through the black market—also helped doctors figure out why things went wrong, perhaps shedding light on how we die—or how we can postpone it. The autopsy business isn’t what it used to be. For one, the body-snatcher industry has been replaced by a legitimate process that includes, among other things, obtaining permission from family members. And yet, the notion of learning from autopsies is a dying industry. It shouldn’t be. In this week’s New York Times, Dr. Sandeep Juahar makes a good point. He notes that fifty years ago, autopsies were done on half the people who died in hospitals. Today it’s about one canadian pharmacy online hgh in ten. You may think—as lots of doctors do—that autopsies are no longer necessary, what with all the imaging tools and lab tests available.
But they are. Jauhar notes that hospitals that do viagra for sale chicago the most autopsies also make the fewest diagnostic mistakes. It’s not quite cause
and effect, but does suggest http://viagracanadianpharmacy-norx.com/ that we may be learning a thing or two from the autopsies that are preventing further mistakes. “Despite the emphasis on metrics and data in medicine today, we ignore perhaps the most important information of all: what we can see for ourselves,” he writes. As for that coveted dead body of 1887? That was poor Blanche Gray, a Fat Lady in the circus who died at the young age of 27. Her death was just as much of a show as her life, with hordes of neighbors ogling at the crane that needed to lift all 500 pounds of her from her room in the Freak Show museum all the way to the
cemetery. During those fledgling days of endocrinology, doctors were eager to learn more about the glands that secreted the juices (soon to be named hormones) that control our bodies and behavior. Blanche, well, she stayed dead and buried, never to be exhumed to a Baltimore lab—despite several attempts. But the field of endocrinology would blossom without her.
The Joneses 1939
The Joneses, circa 1990
The last time it was February 29th
was, of course, four years ago, and I received this email from kp pharmacy online
my 101-year-old friend. tadalafil from india
“Apropos of absolutely nothing,” wrote Dr. Howard W. Jones, Jr., “Leap Year today, 2012 happens to be the 80th
anniversary of the Leap Day presentation of Harvey Cushing in Hurd Hall at Hopkins when I re-met Georgeanna prior to her entry to medical school.” Dr. Jones
died this summer. He was 104 years old. For years,
he told that Leap Day story to anyone who would listen. It combined his favorite topics: sex hormones and Georgeanna King Seegar, his late-wife and colleague. The two of them worked side by side for more than half a century. Literally side-by-side, they shared turkish pharmacy online one desk, which is nearly as remarkable as their career triumphs. The two of them were leaders in reproductive endocrinology and among other things, helped create America’s first test tube baby and promote all the newfangled fertility treatments. In any event, Jones loved to talk about Leap Day because it was on that evening, February 29th, 1932, that he said he fell in love with Georgeanna; Georgeanna fell in love with sex hormones; and eventually she learned to love him and he learned to love sex hormones and the two of them lived and worked happily-ever after. It’s a lovely story, but it bypasses some of the other best online pharmacy exciting things going on that fateful day. Besides the girl-meets-boy subtext, the real story was the speaker, Harvey Cushing, a pioneering brain surgeon. He showed images of so-called circus freaks (the fat lady, the bearded http://bestonlinepharmacy-norx.com/ lady and so on) and insisted that these people should no longer be ogled but cared for in a hospital. Then he said he discovered the hormone underpinnings that explained their abnormalities. A tiny hormone-spewing brain tumor wreaked havoc on the body—physically and psychologically. This talk, later written up in the esteemed Johns Hopkins Bulletin, fueled excitement for the field of hormone research that was really just getting underway. And yes, it was, as Jones, liked to say the spark that flamed his til-death-do-us-part romance. Every time Jones told the Leap Year story, he topped it off with the same punch line: “Years later she (meaning Georgeanna) would say this meeting changed her life. And I thought she meant it changed her life because she met me. But the truth is that she meant it changed her life because she was so fascinated with Harvey Cushing.” That was supposed to be funny: As in he fell in love with her, but she really fell in love with endocrinology. Did Howard exaggerate this yarn of besotted youth? Perhaps. But in hindsight, we all sew the fabric of our lives so the loose threads come together in way that makes sense to ourselves. And for the late Howard and Georgeanna Jones, I know every four years—on February 29th—I’ll be thinking about that “apropos-of-nothing” email which will make me think about Jones’s long-lasting marriage and his long-lasting career—and well, sex hormones. For Further Reading: Howard & Georgeanna: Sixty Year of Marriage and Medicine, By Howard W. Jones, Jr (Howard Jones published his final book at the age of 102, It’s a memoir of his marriage and career. He glosses over the more controversial work (his surgery on intersex and founding one of the first sex-change clinics, but delves into the early years of IVF, and the controversies that ensued.) Cheating Time: Science, Sex, and Aging, by Roger Gosden ( Gosden, a reproductive endocrinologist, provides an entertaining read of all the things we’ve done to try to turn back our biological clock) Heightened Expectations: The Rise of the Human Growth Hormone Industry in http://cheapviagraonline-100mg.com/ America, By Aimee Medeiros (a smart take on a complicated history)